Die Website “Aussenwirtschaftslupe” orientiert ausführlich über einen deutschen Gerichtsentscheid zur Besteuerung der Kapital-Leistungen schweizerischer Pensionskassen (im konkreten Fall der PKBS) für Grenzgänger. Festgehalten wird insbesondere, dass die Leistungen nicht steuerfrei gemäss § 3 Nr. 3 EStG sind und keine mit einer Kapitalabfindung der deutschen gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung vergleichbare Leistung. Konkret heisst es: “Die Steuerfreiheit scheitert nicht daran, dass es sich um die Kapitalabfindung einer schweizerischen Pensionskasse handelt. § 3 Nr. 3 EStG enthält keine Beschränkung auf die Leistungen eines inländischen Versorgungsträgers. Die Kläger weisen zudem zu Recht darauf hin, dass der Begriff der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung in den Vorschriften der §§ 10 und 22 EStG nicht anders als der identische Begriff in § 3 Nr. 3 EStG ausgelegt werden kann.”
Entries in International (735)
A roaring stock market and rising interest rates are fueling the strongest recovery in the $2.4 trillion U.S. corporate-pension sector in more than a quarter century, giving companies new flexibility in dealing with some employee-benefit costs.
Investments in the average company’s pension plan are expected to be at levels that cover 96% of future obligations at the end of the year, according to a new estimate by J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. A separate analysis by Milliman Inc., which provides actuarial products and services, puts the figure above 94%, while pension specialist Mercer says the figure was 91% at the end of October. Funding levels are up from 77% at the end of last year, according to J.P. Morgan—a figure that was essentially unchanged since the financial crisis of 2008.
Corporate pension schemes are set to transfer more liabilities to financial institutions through so-called bulk annuity deals than they have in any year since the financial crisis.
Insurers wrote £3.9bn worth of the deals in the UK in the third quarter alone as companies turned to them to end the instability that ballooning pension deficits bring to their balance sheets. A series of deals struck between insurers and pension schemes at companies including EMI Music Group, Philips and InterContinental Hotels added up to the highest quarterly value of such transactions on record.
It has put pension schemes on track to transfer between £7bn and £8bn worth of liabilities through such arrangements in 2013, the highest in five years, according to the consultants JLT Employee Benefits.
Predictions suggest that by 2050 there will be more than two billion people aged 60 and over. According to the United Nations, this demographic shift is set, and we should not expect to return to the more youthful populations of our ancestors. To discuss the affect of an ageing population on the pensions sector, a panel of experts joined Guardian Sustainable Business for an online live chat. Here are the best bits.
The move to fewer, larger pension funds in key markets such as the Netherlands and United Kingdom could work to the advantage of asset management groups, according to the November issue of The Cerulli Edge-Global Edition. A trimming of pillar II pension funds-many defined benefit but also some defined contribution-is well underway in Europe.
Switzerland's pension landscape, for example, shrunk from more than 2,700 vehicles six years ago to about 2,100 now. Cerulli understands that in three years there will be just 1,500. The Dutch pension watchdog is even more ambitious with a target of 100 funds. There were 672 pension schemes in the Netherlands in 2012. Elsewhere, more work is required.
"The United Kingdom has more than 200,000 schemes, which is clearly impractical," commented Barbara Wall, a Cerulli director. "Auto-enrolment will give rise to fewer, larger pension funds known as 'Super Trusts.' With size comes economies of scale and skills, which should result in better retirement products and improved outcomes for members."
Italy is also struggling with too many schemes. There are currently 361 so called "pre-existing" pension funds, each tied to a specific company. Asset managers and investors want the number reduced because some are so small they cannot invest in a meaningful way.
"One likely effect of a fall in the number of pension funds in Europe is that larger asset managers could find working with the survivors easier," said David Walker, a senior analyst at Cerulli. "Mid-size and smaller rivals may be too small to absorb large allocations."
Another potential winner, in the Netherlands at least, is premium pension institution (PPI) vehicles, because shuttering pension funds could join them. "This would be welcome news for a structure the Dutch pension industry hoped would take off, but has partially misfired. There are fewer than 10 PPIs," noted Walker.
According to a recent report by Cliffwater LLC, an adviser to institutional investors, from 2006 to 2012 state pension funds more than doubled their allocations to alternative investments, which include private equity, real estate, hedge funds and commodities. Totaling almost $600 billion, these nontraditional investments now constitute 24 percent of public pension fund assets. In contrast, the funds dropped their investments in stocks to 49 percent from 61 percent over the six-year period.
There’s a reason for that big move, as explained in a recent International Monetary Fund report. Over the last 10 years, the average U.S. public pension fund earned a return of 6.4 percent a year, very healthy but not enough to meet the 8 percent return guaranteed to government employees. In an effort to take pressure off the state budgets that must cover those deficiencies, the IMF reports that state pension funds have been shifting billions to alternative investments promising higher yields.
Europe's reinsurers will soon test the strength of competition from alternative investors like pension funds, whose activity may keep a lid on reinsurance price rises and add to challenges for a sector already facing crimped investment income.
Reinsurers, including the world's top three players Munich Re, Swiss Re and Hannover RE, gather over the weekend in the German resort of Baden-Baden for annual contract talks with insurance companies, whom they help cover the cost of disasters in exchange for part of the profit.
Pension fund allocations to equities are increasingly replaced with alternatives as European investors seek to cover themselves from the increasing volatility created by the Euro-zone crisis, Mercer's annual European Asset Allocation Survey says.
With the recent warning from the European Commission that financial disintegration was imminent, the detected trend now seems to have started even quicker and fiercer than was predicted in the study.
The survey, which looked at 1200 European pension funds with assets of over €650bn, found that a wide set of alternative asset classes are being considered by pension funds, with 50% of schemes now holding an allocation to alternatives. This marks an increase of 40% compared to last year.
Mercer's study reveals that pension schemes in what could be called 'traditionally equity-heavy markets', such as the UK and Ireland, still have the largest equity weightings, although they have also seen the largest falls in equity allocations. This is mainly due to the desire to drive away from domestic equities. In the UK, average allocations to domestic and non-domestic equities fell by 4% (from 47% to 43%) during the past 12 months.
Increasing share prices have resulted in a higher average coverage ratio of Dutch pension funds. Compared to June the funding levels of the funds increased by an average of 3 percentage points to 97%. However, the funds need a minimum of 105% to comply with the rules set by the Netherland's central bank, DNB. Currently 231 schemes do not reach this funding level and will have to take drastic measures if the trend continues. This could result in 4.9 million members and 2.5 million pensioners seeing their premiums rise and their pensions cut.
Already, most pension rights and payments have not increased in 2012, seeing them lack behind inflation and wage development, thus creating a fall in spending power. At the same time, DNB announced that the total pension premiums over 2012 have risen from 16.9% to 17.4% of people's salary.
The Polish government is expected to release details of its plan to transfer back to the state $47.6 billion worth of government bonds held by privately managed funds that invest retirement money on behalf of Poles.
Critics are calling it the most drastic nationalization of private assets since Soviet times. The government of Prime Minister Donald Tusk counters that it is no more than a bookkeeping change in the way it will handle the public’s retirement money. It has also defended the move as simply an accounting change that will not harm retirees.
Despite the government’s assurances that pensioners will eventually get their money, critics say that withdrawing the bonds, without compensating the fund managers, is tantamount to a seizure of assets.
Das Schweizer Vorsorgesystem hat sich um einen Platz verbessert und belegt nun den vierten Rang. Damit schließt die Schweiz zu den Spitzenreitern Dänemark, Niederlande und Australien auf, die ihre jeweiligen Positionen aus dem Vorjahr behaupten konnten. Südkorea, Indien und Indonesien belegen in der Studie die letzten Plätze.
Dies ist das Ergebnis des Melbourne Mercer Global Pension Index 2013, der von Mercer bereits zum fünften Mal in Kooperation mit dem Australian Centre for Financial Studies erstellt wurde. Die Studie untersucht und bewertet die Altersversorgung von 20 Ländern hinsichtlich der Kriterien „Leistungen“, „Finanzierung“ und „Rahmenbedingungen“. Dabei wurden neben den staatlichen Rentensystemen und der betrieblichen Altersversorgung auch private Anlagen und Vorsorgemaßnahmen berücksichtigt.
Dänemark belegt im Ranking weiterhin Platz 1 und erreicht als einziges Vorsorgesystem den Grade „A“. Mit dem Grade-A-Ranking werden das gut finanzierte Vorsorgesystem des Landes, die hohen Vermögenswerte und Beiträge, die angemessene Leistungen sowie ein gut reguliertes privates Vorsorgesystem anerkannt.
Das Vorsorgesystem der Schweiz hat seinen Gesamtindexwert gegenüber 2012 leicht verbessert (von 73,3 auf 73,9), was in erster Linie auf eine Zunahme der Sparquote zurückzuführen ist.
The Ft 3 trillion (12 Mrd. Fr.) taken from private pension funds in 2011, when the government nationalised such funds, had dwindled to Ft 218.7 billion (49 Mio. Fr.) by the end of July, Világgazdaság writes. The bulk of the money, Ft 1.85 trillion, was spent on reducing the state debt, including the repayment of IMF loans. The state pension fund received Ft 406 billion in 2011, and now manages Ft 218.7 billion after paying Ft 233 billion to former pension fund members.
A new assessment of state pension obligations suggests the problem is even worse than it already appears. How much worse? Using a more conservative method of accounting for financial gains in the marketplace, there is a $4.1 trillion gap between assets and liabilities — known as the “unfunded liability” — of all state-level pension systems in the United States, according to State Budget Solutions, a fiscally conservative think tank that deals with tax and spending issues at the state level.
On a per-capita basis, each American would have to fork over about $13,100 to fill that gap and fulfill the promises made to current and retired state workers. The new survey makes the pension crisis look worse than in other reports because of the way State Budget Solutions calculates the plans’ unfunded liabilities.
The group uses a measure called “market value liability,” which assumes that pension funds will earn about 3.22% annually — in line with what long-term U.S. Treasury bonds pay. That measure is more accurate than often bloated assumptions that underpin most state pension plans.
Detroit’s municipal pension fund made payments for decades to retirees, active workers and others above and beyond normal benefits, costing the struggling city billions of dollars and helping push it into bankruptcy, according to people who have reviewed the payments.
The payments, which were not publicly disclosed, included bonuses to retirees, supplements to workers not yet retired and cash to the families of workers who died before becoming eligible to collect a pension, according to reports by an outside actuary and other people with knowledge of the matter.
How much each person received is not known. But available records suggest that the trustees approving the payments did not discriminate; nearly everybody in the plan received them. Most of the trustees on Detroit’s two pension boards represent organized labor, and for years they could outvote anyone who challenged the payments.
Detroit has nearly 12’000 retired general workers, who last year received pensions of $19,213 a year on average — hardly enough to drive a great American city into bankruptcy. But the total excess payments in some years ran to more than $100 million, a crushing expense for a city in steep decline. In some years, the outside actuary found, Detroit poured into the pension fund more than twice the amount it would have had to contribute had it paid only the specified benefits.“
This abuse of discretion was most egregious in 2009,” said Mr. Moore, a managing director at the firm of Conway MacKenzie. He said the pooled pension trust had lost 24 percent of the value of its assets that year, but the trustees appeared to have credited the individual accounts with 7.5 percent interest.
Despite nearly one in four pension professionals believing that the level of de-risking will increase dramatically, many schemes may be unprepared to de-risk themselves, research commissioned by EDM Group has revealed.
Investors responsible for more than $2 trillion recently gathered at a resort in the Canadian Rockies, far from the news media and, more important, far from Wall Street.
Those in attendance, including leaders of Abu Dhabi’s sovereign wealth fund and France’s pension system, were there to consider ways to put their money to work together without paying fees to private equity firms and hedge funds. Over that weekend, three of the attendees completed the details of a $300 million investment in a clean-energy company.
The group holding the gathering, the Institutional Investors Roundtable, has kept a low public profile since it began in 2011, but it attracted 27 funds managing public money to its latest meeting and is spinning off concrete investments. The group is part of a much broader push by the world’s biggest pension and sovereign wealth funds to reduce their reliance on the Wall Street firms that used to manage almost all their money.
The efforts to change the way public money is managed are motivated, in no small part, by the big fees and lackluster performance that many hedge funds and private equity firms have delivered to their biggest clients in recent years. Investment managers like Leo de Bever, at the Canadian province of Alberta’s $70 billion fund, have found they can often manage their own money at a lower cost without losing out on returns.
Top Democrats in the California Senate asked the state's multibillion-dollar public employee pension funds to refrain from making future investments in Russia, adding their voices to protests against restrictions on gay rights there.
CalPERS, the largest employee pension system in the nation, has $266 billion invested around the globe, of which $1.4 billion is invested in Russia.
UK pension fund assets hit £2 trillion for the first time at the end of December 2012, up from £1.9 trillion a year earlier, according to the latest figures from the Investment Management Association.
Local government pension schemes accounted for a larger proportion of assets in 2012, representing 6.9% of total mandates at £171 billion. This was up from £142 billion, 5.8% of total mandates, in 2011.
Corporate pension funds remained around the £1 trillion mark, although in-house occupational pension scheme assets under management grew by £3 billion during 2012.
The IMA’s annual report includes both defined contribution and defined benefit assets. Pension funds accounted for 51.6% of the UK institutional investment market by the end of December 2012, up from 50.3% at the end of 2011, with the insurance market shrinking by 2.9 percentage points. The remaining institutional assets – including public sector, non-profit, corporate and sub-advisory funds — totaled 14.1%, down from 12.6% at the end of 2011.
UK assets under management are split in favour of actively managed funds, which accounted for 78.1% of the market, with the remainder in passively-managed funds. The percentage in actively managed funds increased by 0.2 percentage points between December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2012.
Occupational pension fund managers will be crying into their beer tonight. Mark Carney, the Bank of England governor, has in effect ruled out an increase in base interest rates for another three years. And without a rate rise, pension fund deficits are only going to get larger.
There will be the benefit of a stock market rally that, at least in the next couple of years, will push up the value of pension fund assets. But pension funds have tended to be shy of buying a slice of corporate Britain in favour of lending it money.
Wie es scheint, plant Norwegens Politik einen Review des 740 Milliarden US-Dollar schweren Staatsfonds, der offiziell "The Government Pension Fund Global" heißt. Die Idee stammt von den Konservativen, die vor den Wahlen im nächsten Monat in den Umfragen führen und nun nach einem wettbewerbsorientierteren Modell suchen, um die Erträge der Generationenanlagen zu steigern, berichtet die Nachrichtenagentur Bloomberg. Das langfristige Renditeziel des Fonds von vier Prozent ist angesichts des Niedrigzinsumfelds immer schwerer zu erreichen.
Die norwegische Regierung zieht Mittel aus dem Fonds heran, um das Budget abzufedern, dabei darf der Mittel-Anteil aus dem Staatsfonds aber nicht mehr als vier Prozent ausmachen. Infolge des gestiegenen Fondsvermögens steigt dieser Betrag kontinuierlich, hat der Fonds seine Größe doch seit 2005 vervierfacht und sollte nach Schätzungen der Regierung bis 2020 noch um weitere 50 Prozent schwerer werden.